( Russian tekhnika), the totality of means used by man in his tasks and also created to execute the procedures of manufacturing and also to satisfy the nonproduction demands of culture. Technology symbolizes the expertise and experience accumulated in the development of social production. Its chief objective is the partial or complete substitute of man’s effective features in order to reduce the burden of labor and increase labor’s productivity. Based upon male’s understanding of the legislations of nature, modern technology makes it possible to effect basic boosts in the performance of human labor as well as to expand human capacities for valuable labor. It provides the means for reliable, incorporated use natural deposits as well as makes it feasible to harness the natural wide range of the earth, the oceans, the atmosphere, and area.
The Russian term tekhnika is additionally utilized to describe a facility of abilities and also approaches utilized in some craft or art, for instance, document keeping, dancing, or piano having fun. In this feeling it corresponds to the English word “method.”.
As production expands as well as brand-new tools of labor are produced, modern technology releases male from the performance of various manufacturing features requiring both physical and also psychological labor. Innovation is made use of for lots of objectives: to act on the objects of labor in the creation of material and also cultural values; to acquire, transmit, as well as convert energy; to study the legislations of natural and also social development; to supply transport and also interaction; to gather, store, process, and transfer info; to enhance everyday life; to offer social government; as well as to offer national defense as well as to fight. Depending on its purpose, technology is identified as production modern technology, consisting of power-engineering innovation, and nonproduction modern technology, which serves everyday life, scientific research, education, society, army events, as well as medicine.
In its large range of applications, manufacturing technology constitutes the mass of existing technological ways– makers, mechanisms, devices, control equipment for machines and production procedures, buildings as well as various other structures utilized for production, roadways, bridges, canals, and indicates of transportation and interaction. The most active market of production innovation is machinery, which can be partitioned right into a number of standard groups: manufacturing machinery, for metalworking, building, mining, metallurgy, agriculture, textile production, food processing, and also papermaking; transport machinery, consisting of car, diesel as well as electric engines, aircrafts, as well as motor ships; equipment for moving or taking care of materials, for example, conveyors, elevators, cranes, and lifts; monitoring as well as control equipment as well as computers, including machines for central surveillance as well as control and for data handling; as well as power-engineering equipment, such as electric equipments, internal-combustion engines, and turbines. Amongst contemporary technological means of production, the highest possible value is connected to power-engineering modern technology, utilized in obtaining and also transforming power.
The principal markets of nonproduction innovation are public and also domestic innovation (metropolitan maintenance machinery, laundry equipments, food preparation home appliances, refrigerators, vacuum, television, and tape recorders); transport innovation (auto, bikes, motor scooters, and also bikes); sports modern technology (racing automobiles, luxury yachts, and acrobatics equipment); as well as educational and also cultural technology (technical mentor aids, theatrical scenery, as well as motion-picture and also still cams). Armed forces innovation comprises an unique group of non-production means. Its objective is to furnish militaries with offending and protective tools, such as containers, conventional as well as rocket artillery, aircraft, surface area vessels, and submarines.
No global category system for innovation has yet been designed. Innovation is most often categorized according to the location of manufacturing involved, for instance, commercial modern technology, transportation technology, and agricultural technology, or according to specific structural communities of sector, as an example, aircraft modern technology as well as the technology of land reclamation. Sometimes, category is based on the life sciences on which a particular field is based, as an example, nuclear innovation, refrigeration modern technology, and computer technology.
Principal phases of technological development. Historically, modern technology has travelled through an extensive process of development– from the crude instruments of primitive male to one of the most complicated automated tools of modern-day market. An especially vital duty in the development of social manufacturing was played by devices designed to replace human labor in doing particular production and transport functions. The development of rotating jennies and the multipurpose vapor engine initiated the industrial transformation in the late 18th and also early 19th centuries, marking the change from guidebook to maker manufacturing. The boosted vapor engine could be utilized to drive not simply one however lots of machines. This was a precondition for the intro for different transfer tools, which in a lot of cases formed a difficult mechanical system.
In defining the advancement of the mechanical means of labor, particularly, instruments as well as machines, which make up one of the most vital part of modern technology, K. Marx provided the following synopsis of advancement: “Straightforward tools, the accumulation of tools, composite tools; the driving of a composite device by hand, the driving of devices by natural pressures; devices; systems of machines having one engine; and also systems of devices having an automatic engine. This is the progress of equipment” (Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 4, p. 156). Massive sector owed its advancement to its most characteristic ways of production– the maker. Initially, machine devices, heavy steam engines, and other devices were made separately by skilled workers on a cottage-industry range. Later on, drive systems, transfer tools, and also devices to change employees enhanced in size and became much more intricate. New materials showed up that were difficult to work. These adjustments generated an unbiased need for automation and also making use of machinery in industry. By presenting the manufacturing of equipments by machines, massive plutocrat sector produced an adequate technological base.
Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the technological methods of labor penetrated private aspects of manufacturing procedures as well as constantly took over entire branches of industry, replacing standard types of production based upon manual labor and craft innovation (seeHANDICRAFTS). Device production ended up being extremely extensive in all industrially established countries of the globe. With the development of large industry, styles were boosted and the capabilities and also efficiency of technological tools increased. In the late 19th century the steam engine was gradually supplanted by the much more economical as well as small internal-combustion engine, which enabled new sorts of machinery to be produced, as an example, car, tractors, excavators, airplanes, as well as motor ships. New energy-conversion methods were located, based upon making use of heavy steam generators and hydrotur-bines attached to electrical power generators.
In the first fifty percent of the 20th century, the developed electrical motor located universal application as a group or individual drive system for such tools as metal-cutting as well as woodworking device devices, fabric machinery, mining equipment, lifting and also transport machinery, and rolling mills.
In a machine system, the things of labor passes consecutively with a collection of partial and related processes, which are performed by a range of various equipments that match one another. In its most developed type, a machine system produces the preconditions for constant production-line production as well as for the significantly broad intro of computerized makers created to change human labor. Such makers independently and without direct human intervention carry out all fundamental and also auxiliary procedures, such as altering rates and also feeds, turning around, placing things as well as eliminating them after processing, as well as applying and removing functioning components. Each automated machine is an intricate accumulation including one or several motors, a number of transfer gadgets, numerous functioning aspects, and special equipment for surveillance, control, as well as guideline. In the process of the automation of manufacturing, automated equipments are created that may have lots of functioning elements that at the same time carry out very intricate manufacturing procedures. The modern technology of automation frees man for arduous labor in the efficiency of labor-intensive functions, substantially increases labor productivity, and also makes sure excellent quality while keeping harmony, accuracy, and also consistent specs for the goods produced.
Basic indexes of innovation. In innovation– whether presently in use or just being introduced– one of the most crucial indexes are performance, reliability, and economic situation of procedure. The performance of technology is established by the amount of items that can be produced, processed, or delivered per unit time. The dependability of innovation or technical ways is defined by the ability to create products of a defined top quality without interruption as well as in the preferred quantity or by the ability to fulfill a production feature within a specified time. The life of production tools depends not only on the certain top qualities and also conditions of use of the private technological means yet additionally on the rate of technical development, which figures out the obsolescence of innovation. The price of technological development limits the valuable life of a machine or device to the amount of time required for more established technology to appear. Economy of procedure is established by the consumption of raw and also various other products, gas, as well as power as well as by the expense of complementary centers essential for normal operations, such as building structures and also manufacturing locations.
The performance, integrity, and economic situation of procedure can be improved by innovation, that is, by improving the style of the functioning elements, drives, as well as transfer devices and by automating operational procedures. Timely innovation makes it possible to prolong the beneficial life of a given modern technology, making certain that the modern technology will certainly proceed fulfilling the demands of scientific as well as technological development.
Besides adapting the manufacturing indexes noted above, contemporary technology must please the demands of functional designs, industrial style, as well as ecology. Ergonomie criteria define that the operation of technological systems need to correspond to the physiological and also neuropsychological features of employees. The optimal mix of human capabilities and technical capacities in a man-machine system substantially enhances manufacturing performance. Industrial style defines the principal needs and also trends in using modern technology to create an unified material atmosphere for the function of improving the problems of labor, daily life, as well as leisure. With the expanding scale of technical progression and also the surge as well as advancement of new locations of innovation, the significance of ecological factors is frequently enhancing. These factors are associated with the conservation and also improvement of the native environment, the creation of optimal conditions for human task, and the avoidance of the unfavorable or damaging impacts of manufacturing technology as well as energy-related technology on the planet’s mineral sources, atmosphere, plants, and animals. Thus, the performance of modern technology and the creation of brand-new types of technology makes it necessary to take the human factor right into account.
The automation and power readily available per worker are important in examining the application of innovation in various fields of the national economic climate and also the impact of innovation on the efficiency of social labor. The mechanization available per worker is measured by the value of the equipments and also mechanisms used in production per employee; the power available per employee is a feature of the amount of mechanical and electrical energy used in the production procedure per man-hour or per worker. Substantial development in labor efficiency in the Soviet economy has actually been attained largely through extensive growth of these two indexes and also via the application of brand-new technology in manufacturing. In building and construction, for instance, the mechanization readily available per worker increased by an element of 13.6 in between 1940 and 1973, allowing a more than fivefold increase in labor efficiency.
Development pattern of innovation. The accomplishment of technical development depends mainly on the degree to which market, building and construction, agriculture, and transport are outfitted with one of the most established methods to mechanize and also automate production processes. A considerable function is additionally played by the provision of advanced equipment to the nonproduction markets of the economy– the solution as well as domestic fields. The boosted output of the fundamental technical means of production and also the advancement of power-engineering as well as residential innovation in the USSR is shown by the data in Table 1.
Manufacturing has established most intensively in the locations of technology that contribute to the technological re-equipment of the leading branches of heavy industry; these consist of machine structure for the manufacture of power machinery, electrical devices, machine devices, mining and chemical maker structure, instrumentation, and production of automation, building, hoisting, and transport equipment. Production in farming modern technology is additionally characterized by high development rates, as an example, in the production of tractors, harvesters, fodder-processing equipment, hair transplanting equipment, as well as self-propelled framework. The manufacturing of electrical house devices likewise reveals high growth prices.
Today duration of technical development is characterized by an ever before boosting price of innovation as well as substitute.